Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

best male track & field performances of all-time

Collapse

Unconfigured Ad Widget

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • #16
    Originally posted by deanouk
    but didn't Carl Lewis fail 4 drug tests in 1988!?
    it was more like 2 or 3 & it related all to the same ingestion of a stimulant - 2 or 3 tests taken in a short period of time at '88 trials - tests relate to same singular offence, but picked up substance over period of a few days by repeat tests - NOT at different meets

    the stimulant in question is now either removed from list or has minimum concentration specific amounts to elicit a ban

    same offence in this more enlightened age, chances are there woud have been no offence elicited

    Comment


    • #17
      Article on Edwards

      Can he jump 19 metres?
      23 September 1995
      From New Scientist Print Edition. Subscribe and get 4 free issues.
      Bill Melville

      MOST VIEWEDMOST COMMENTED
      Most popular yesterday

      Wind turbines make bat lungs explode

      'Formula Zero' kart race could drive fuel cell technology

      And on that farm the cows face north - says Google

      Death special: How does it feel to die?

      Massive galaxy cluster to shed light on cosmic lumpiness


      Most commented yesterday

      Wind turbines make bat lungs explode

      And on that farm the cows face north - says Google

      Why US must invest against climate change

      Massive galaxy cluster to shed light on cosmic lumpiness

      The six forms of music

      MOST POPULAR
      Shimmer vision
      Heat haze can help new binoculars see further
      WEB EXCLUSIVE
      Just six songs
      Daniel Levitin argues that there are only six types of music. Explore his ideas, and read our review of his book
      RECOMMENDED READING
      Arsenic superfood
      Rice bran, touted as a superfood, contains 'inappropriate' levels of arsenic
      ENVIRONMENT BLOG
      Alien shark
      A goblin shark with a retractable jaw is found off the coast of Japan
      ENVIRONMENT NEWS
      Bats beware
      Bats die in large numbers around wind farms, because the turbines can cause their lungs to explode
      LAST month, in front of more than 40 000 spectators at the World Athletics Championships in Sweden, Jonathan Edwards shattered the world record for the triple jump with a leap of 18 metres and 15 centimetres. A few minutes later, on his next jump, the British athlete extended the record to 18.29 metres. When he stepped onto the podium to receive his gold medal, the crowd saluted his outstanding achievement with a standing ovation.

      Unknown to both Edwards and the crowd, this was also an exceptional occasion in scientific terms. Throughout the championship, a team of sports scientists had been recording the precise body movements of the athletes as they jumped - the first time this has ever been done during a world class competition. Their results show that Edwards's jumping technique is unique, that over short distances he is one of the quickest men on Earth and that, with a small change in the way he jumps, he could one day leap more than 19 metres.

      The team of Swedish and Danish researchers are concerned with biomechanics - the way an athlete's body moves during an exercise. Their raw material is high speed video footage of a race, a jump or a throw. When analysed by computer, these images can be used to generate a simplified "matchstick" model of the athlete showing the movement and angle of the head, arms and legs, torso and centre of gravity. Armed with this data, researchers and coaches can more easily spot flaws in an athlete's technique and work out strategies for improving their action and overall performance.

      In the past, however, the high speed cameras and timing equipment needed for these measurements have only been used during training sessions because of the difficulties operating them during a competition. But the way an athlete trains does not necessarily reflect the way he or she performs on the day. According to Erik Simonsen, a member of the research team and a specialist in biomechanics at the University of Copenhagen, "You can never get athletes to perform in the same way without competition." The intense psychological pressure of competing against the best athletes in the world, often in front of a huge crowd and an international television audience, creates conditions that cannot be duplicated. While some athletes buckle under this stress, others such as Edwards produce world record breaking performances.

      Simonsen and his team gathered their data using automatic video cameras triggered by a series of photocells along the track which also measured the athlete's speed during the run-up. Space is limited inside international athletics stadiums and the team had to jockey for position with press photographers. "In the end, we had to remove ourselves from the stadium and pray that the cameras were still working," says Simonsen. Fortunately, they were and the team went home that evening with a wealth of unrepeatable data.

      The triple jump is made up of three phases: a hop in which the athlete takes off and lands on the same foot, a step to land on the other foot and a final jump to land on both feet, usually in a sandpit. The athlete is allowed a run-up to build up speed but the jump is measured from a pre-arranged line, where the hop begins, to the landing point. The event has its origins in the ancient Celtic games of Ireland and Scotland. Legend has it that the contest developed from the technique used by nimble-footed warriors to negotiate stepping stones over tumbling torrents. Early 19th-century records show one Scottish competitor at a local games clearing 12.95 metres.

      Ten years ago, the American athlete Willie Banks set the world record at 17.97 metres. Banks once broke the 18-metre barrier only to find that his jump didn't count as a world record because it had been assisted by a following wind greater than the 2 metres per second maximum. In June, at an international athletics meeting in Spain, Edwards broke Banks's record with ajump of 17.98 metres and at the Ullevi Stadium in Gothenburg he became the first man to break the 18 metre barrier with a legal jump.

      One reason for Edwards's success is his speed. "He was the fastest triple jumper in the championships," says Leif Dahlberg, another member of the group and the national coach for the Swedish athletics team. Although Edwards's time over 100 metres is a mediocre 10.5 seconds, few would be his equal over 20 metres with a jogging start. When Carl Lewis set a 100-metres world record in Tokyo in 1991, he ran 9.86 seconds and peaked at a speed of 11.8 metres per second. In the run-up to his world record breaking jump in Gothenburg, Edwards peaked at 11.9 metres per second.

      And no other athlete jumps like Edwards. The team recorded every competitor's landing and takeoff at each phase of every jump with a video camera. The camera took 50 frames per second but used a 1/1000th of a second shutter speed to freeze the movement of arms and legs in each frame. In the weeks since the championship, Simonsen, Dahlberg and two coaches from the Danish athletics authority have created and compared matchstick models of the 11 finalists in the triple jump competition.

      The results show that the centre of gravity of most triple jumpers tends to bounce up and down during the hop and step phases, and that the average take-off angle into the jump is 22.5 degrees. During the hop and step, the jumpers land with their foot slightly ahead of their centre of gravity. This prevents an uncontrollable forward rotation that would send the athlete head first into the sand - well short of their objective of over 17 metres. But it also acts as a break, slowing forward motion with each step, explains Dahlberg.

      Edwards's technique is different. The path of his centre of gravity is unusually smooth and level and he takes off on the final jump at an unexpectedly low angle - a maximum of 17.5 degrees. Most surprising of all, his foot lands immediately beneath his centre of gravity. "It is what every competitor wants to do but dare not," says Dahlberg. How Edwards avoids pitching into the sand is not yet clear. One theory is that he raises his knees so rapidly in midflight that this somehow compensates for any forward rotation.

      The result is that Edwards is not only the fastest man in the run-up but also the fastest man when he takes off for the final jump. Brian Wellman, the Bermudan silver medallist in the championship, managed 17.62 metres with his best jump. His top speed during the run-up was 11.63 metres per second but after the hop and step his speed had fallen to 6.49 metres per second - a drop of 44 per cent. By contrast, Edwards's speed into the final jump was 7.27 metres per second, a drop of less than 39 per cent from his maximum of 11.9 metres per second.

      In this jump phase, the athletes must convert their speed into distance. Both Wellman and Edwards actually took off from more or less the same spot but the British jumper then sailed 7 metres, half a metre more than Wellman, because of his extra speed.

      But Edwards's style is not perfect. Simonsen calculates that he takes off at too low an angle and by changing it by 1/10th of a degree, Edwards could clear 18.80 or 18.90 metres. Dahlberg agrees: "Given a legal 2 metres per second following wind he could take the record over 19 metres."

      Sports Science Journalist
      From issue 1996 of New Scientist magazine, 23 September 1995, page 28

      Comment


      • #18
        Originally posted by parkerrclay
        Although Edwards's time over 100 metres is a mediocre 10.5 seconds, few would be his equal over 20 metres with a jogging start. When Carl Lewis set a 100-metres world record in Tokyo in 1991, he ran 9.86 seconds and peaked at a speed of 11.8 metres per second. In the run-up to his world record breaking jump in Gothenburg, Edwards peaked at 11.9 metres per second
        this i have a problem with

        no way on earth was edwards' peak instantaneous speed ever quick than his

        The results show that the centre of gravity of most triple jumpers tends to bounce up and down during the hop and step phases, and that the average take-off angle into the jump is 22.5 degrees.

        Edwards's technique is different. The path of his centre of gravity is unusually smooth and level and he takes off on the final jump at an unexpectedly low angle - a maximum of 17.5 degrees.

        But Edwards's style is not perfect. Simonsen calculates that he takes off at too low an angle and by changing it by 1/10th of a degree, Edwards could clear 18.80 or 18.90 metres. Dahlberg agrees: "Given a legal 2 metres per second following wind he could take the record over 19 metres."
        this is clearly a nonsense

        they claim he jumps 18.29 ( strictly the 7m last phase ) with 17 degrees & that usual is 22.5 degrees

        they state 0.1 degree angle increase woud add 0.50 - 0.60m

        therefore with a whole 1 degree increase, he coud be expected to add 5 - 6m for 23.29 - 24.29m !?

        overall, not an article i'd have much faith in

        Comment


        • #19
          One particular issue that is starting to annoy me: When a fast jumper is
          discussed, there are often statements like ``He is fast, but he looses
          out on the take-off angle. If he learned to jump at a higher angle, he
          would break the WR, 30', 19 meters, whatnot.''.

          This fails to consider that not the angle is important, but the height
          jumped, respectively the vertical velocity component. If two jumpers
          have the same speed upwards, but differ in horizontal speed, then the
          faster will automatically have the lower angle. Edwards and Lewis could
          easily have raised there take-off angle---by running slower. This
          would, however, not have helped them jump further.

          For a discussion about the take-off angle to be fruitful, it would be
          necessary to show that the horizontal-to-vertical speed conversion at
          take-off is sub-optimal or that the jumper is not jumping high enough
          muscle-wise. If these specific issues (that may or may not result in an
          unusual take-off angle) can be addressed without throwing the jumpers
          technique off, unduly increase the amount of training, or similar,
          then we can discuss potential improvement. This, however, is very far
          from ``He should learn to jump at better angle.''.

          Comment


          • #20
            I wondered about the speed myself.

            This is why I didn't include any what-ifs - those could go on forever

            Comment


            • #21
              i kick myself for not c&p'ing interesting data from iaaf forums before they got defuncted

              pj posted some beautiful data on lj speeds & angles for the great jumps & i put it thru some projectile software

              all i've got left is some comments

              http://mb.trackandfieldnews.com/discuss ... 908#187908

              http://mb.trackandfieldnews.com/discuss ... 0186#40186

              http://mb.trackandfieldnews.com/discuss ... 0205#40205

              i do remember that the 8.50 - 8.60 jumps were pretty spot-on with the projectile software ( lower speeds allowed near perfect technique ), but the jumps of 8.70+ ( toe-sand ) were often theoretically well over 9.00m but technique was lost at these higher speeds & we got actual toe-sands of nearer 8.90

              ( note - one of links gives King's peak speed in his 8.91m of 11.26m/s - compare that to edward's alleged 11.9m/s !!! )

              Comment


              • #22
                At the time he did it, what was Beamon's jump worth on the decathlon scale?

                I know that question makes the discussion far more difficult. With that, now
                we are comparing Beamon, with Jim Thorpe, with the entire pantheon of T&Fathletes.

                Comment


                • #23
                  if someone had a lot of free time and some interest, he/she could track some of the all-time records with the iaaf pt system to see where they are at. it would be interesting to see for instance where owens`s 26'8 would compares to other records in that time

                  Comment

                  Working...
                  X